Thank you very much for your interest in the model and the work we do. Below you will find the most frequently asked questions that we have collected and brought together for your convenience.
Please note that while we are extremely grateful to all those that undertake research using the model, we, unfortunately, cannot help all of you with your research. Below we gather the questions we get asked most often. We hope this helps you with your research.
Please note that questions answered in the FAQ will no longer be answered to by e-mail.
Where can I find more information?
Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
I want to cite your website in my thesis/paper/publication. How can I do that?
Please note that some scores are estimated (see next chapter) and for ease of understanding the original scores have been capped at 100. This means that these should not be used for research. The scores from the book can be downloaded easily at the link: http://geerthofstede.com/research-and-vsm/. Best of luck with your research projects!
www.hofstede-insights.com uses copyrighted information from Professor Geert Hofstede’s books, for which Hofstede Insights, the owner of the website, has been licensed by Professor Hofstede. Hofstede Insights cannot give permission to third persons to use this information in publications, and our website cannot be used as a reference.
References should be made to one or both of the original sources:
- Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. and/or
- Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
These books are available in any good academic bookstore and library and from Amazon.
Publication rights requests should be addressed to email@example.com.
About the estimated scores marked with * in our tools
Certain country scores, on the website, cannot be found in Hofstede’s books. These scores are – partially or fully – not from Hofstede; they have been added through research projects of other researchers or internal projects of Hofstede Insights. As this has been done under the direction of Hofstede Insights, all references should be made to them when using these scores. Do so by referring to the website as a SECONDARY SOURCE, naming Hofstede Insights as the original source (please consult your academic style guide for more information).
Why is country X,Y,Z not included in the National Dimension list?
Unfortunately, some countries were not included in the research; therefore the data does not exist.
Of which year are the dimension scores? Are the scores up to date?
It depends on the country. The data originates from different years. The first scores were collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973 covering more than 70 countries, from which Hofstede first used the 40 largest, and later extending the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions. In the editions of Geert Hofstede’s work since 2001, such as the most recent 3rd edition from 2010, scores are listed for 76 countries and regions, partly based on replications and extensions of the IBM study on different international populations.
Since culture only changes very slowly, the scores can be considered up to date.
What is the range of scores?
The scale runs from 0 – 100, with 50 as a mid-level. The rule of thumb is that if a score is under 50 the culture scores relatively LOW on that scale and if any score is over 50 the culture scores HIGH on that scale. In the case of IDV – the LOW side (under 50) is considered “Collectivist” and above 50 considered “Individualist”. A country with a score of 43 would be collectivist but less collectivist than someone with 28 who is moving down toward the 0 mark.
I need help with my thesis
Unfortunately, we cannot help with specific Bachelor and Masters thesis projects. Please see Hofstede’s personal website for information about his research:
Send me the books for free
Unfortunately, we do not send the books, the books are available in any good academic bookstore and library and from Amazon.
We emphasise that our treatment of country or regions as separate units does not embody any ideological judgement of whether or not these units belong together politically. It is simply an expression of the fact that sampling has been conducted separately in these spaces.