Frequently asked questions

Because we cannot possibly help all the students who contact us for their thesis. We hope that the answers to the questions help you with your work. All the best to you!

We are delighted that you are interested in our work and the research behind it. Below you will find the most frequently asked questions we have compiled for your convenience.

Please note that questions answered in the FAQ will not be answered by e-mail.

I would like to do further research. Can we collaborate?

While we are keen to be a professional partner in commercial or otherwise funded research, we cannot help with other research projects. As a commercial organisation, our research engagements are, with few exceptions, limited to paid assignments. Please contact us if you are interested in contracting us. For other projects, we hope the answers to the questions below help you with your research, and we also invite you to participate in our Cross-Cultural Research Programme.

Where can I find more information?

To better understand the 6-D Model of National Culture, see this article

To better understand the Multi-focus Model on Organisational Culture, see this article

For publications and in-depth information, see:

Geert Hofstede on cultural dimensions, including a summary of the national and organisational culture model:

For the 6-D Model on national culture, targeted at undergraduate students and managers: 

  • Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

For the 6-D Model on national culture and the Multi-Focus Model on Organizational Culture, for researchers:

  • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 

I want to cite your website in my academic article/ thesis. How can I do that?

Single reproduction of limited parts of this website is allowed as part of thesis & academic articles.

This permission is under the condition that the use mentioned above is not directly or indirectly connected to commercial purposes or is intended to collect or generate revenue for the user.

Please make sure to add the link to the site and consult your academic style guide for more information on citing websites.

Also note that if you want to use and cite Geert Hofstede’s original study based on data collected within IBM in the 1960s and 70s, you should not use this website as a source but refer directly to Hofstede’s publications. The scores published on our website have been updated to reflect the latest developments in cross-cultural research and overall cultural changes since then.


Why is country X,Y,Z not included in the National Dimension list?

The country scores are derived from various research projects that generally use surveys as data collection method. Some countries have not been included in any research project, and therefore, the data simply does not exist.

From which year are the dimension scores? Are the scores up to date?

The latest update on our website was on October 16, 2023 (IDV and LTO). To see the scores before the latest update, click here. The data originates from different years, depending on the country and the dimension in question. The first scores were collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973, covering more than 70 countries, from which Hofstede first used the 40 largest. This was later extended to 50 countries and 3 regions. In the editions of Geert Hofstede’s work since 2001, scores are listed for 76 countries and regions, partly based on replications and extensions of the IBM study on different international populations. In 2022, the list of countries was extended to 102. This latest set of scores is based on a study by Hofstede Insights Oy and Mediacom, an advertising agency, under the guidance of Dr. Minkov.

How were the scores generated?

The scores reported here have been generated from survey responses, starting with Hofstede’s initial studies between 1967 and 1973. Over time, with the advancement of research methods and technology, such as the possibility of online surveys, dimensions have been added and updated. Therefore, the dimension definition and the country scores can be considered a process. 

The following steps are typically involved in this process:

  • Literature review
  • Development and translation of a questionnaire
  • Fielding of the questionnaire in a minimum of about 20 countries, preferably more
  • Dimension identification through factor analysis or other scaling methods
  • Normalization of factor scores to fit data from previous studies.
  • Validation: Correlations with dimensions of previous studies and national indices such as educational achievement or crime rates.

We recommend researchers who wish to learn more about cross-cultural research to attend our course on cross-cultural research methods.

Latest score changes

In 2023, scores of IDV and LTO have been updated based on a large-scale replication study covering 56 countries. The results of the study, - conducted by Hofstede Insights Ltd. and Mediacom in 2015 and 2016 - were published in a series of peer-reviewed journal articles which have been cited frequently and hence accepted in the academic community. The results were validated by follow-up studies and extended the number of countries to 102 (Minkov & Kaasa, 2021, Minkov & Kaasa, 2022).  

Based on a recent publication in the Journal of Cross-Cultural & Strategic Management, the scores of several Arab countries were updated on May 2nd 2022.  

I noticed a significant drop of the US score on Individualism. Why is that?

The scores were updated based on this study by Minkov, et al.:

Minkov, M., Dutt, P., Schachner, M., Morales, O., Sanchez, C., Jandosova, J., ... & Mudd, B. (2017). A revision of Hofstede’s individualism-collectivism dimension: A new national index from a 56-country study. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management24(3), 386-404.

The cause for this significant change could be that, for one, inequality has been on the rise in the United States compared to countries like the Netherlands or Sweden, which are now considered the most individualistic.

Also, the initial US score based on Hofstede's study within IBM may have been too high. The sample back then consisted mostly of Caucasians, while the latest study represented other ethnic groups according to the national census. Caucasians still score more individualistic than Hispanics, for example. 

What is the range of scores?

The scale runs from 0 - 100, with 50 as a mid-level. The rule of thumb is that if a score is under 50, the culture scores relatively LOW on that scale, and if any score is over 50, the culture scores HIGH on that scale.  In the case of IDV - the LOW side (under 50) is considered “Collectivist”, and the HIGH side above 50 is considered “Individualist”.  

However, when using the 6-D Model, it is important to keep in mind that culture only exists by comparison. The country scores on the dimensions are relative; societies are compared to others. Without comparison, a country score is meaningless. 

That means that only in comparison to another country can you say that a country is individualistic. For example, only in comparison to a country that scores 28 on this dimension will a country that scores 43 be viewed as being more individualistic. For a country that scores 64, this country that scores 43 will be viewed as less individualistic.

Why did you change the name of the MAS dimension from Masculinity to Motivation Towards Achievement and Success?

The terms Masculinity and Femininity caused discomfort among some of our customers and website visitors for treating gender as a binary concept. While it was certainly never Hofstede’s intention to offend people, we acknowledged that the name was not timely anymore, and hence we changed it to Motivation towards Achievement and Success. The changed name does not mean a reinterpretation of the dimension, and also the country scores have remained the same.

For those interested in an in-depth analysis of this dimension, see Hofstede, G. (1998). Masculinity and femininity: The taboo dimension of national cultures (Vol. 3). Sage. 


I need help with my thesis or I would like to call you to discuss my thesis

Unfortunately, we cannot help everyone with their Bachelor's and Master’s theses. There is a lot of information on this website where you may find the answers to your questions. Read the following books for more information:

      • Minkov, M. (2012). Cross-cultural analysis: The science and art of comparing the world's modern societies and their cultures. SAGE publications.
      • Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
      • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Can I order the books from you?

No, but the books are available in any good academic bookstore and library and from Amazon.


We emphasise that our treatment of countries or regions as separate units does not embody any ideological judgement of whether or not these units belong together politically. It is simply an expression of the fact that sampling has been conducted separately in these geographical places.

In addition, please remember that country dimensions are measured as a whole, and not all individuals within a country reflect the country's culture. A country score is still meaningful because all individuals within the country have been socialized within this culture regardless of their personality.

Interesting links

Culture Compass an instrument that will help to understand the impact of one's own cultural value preferences and potential pitfalls that might arise when dealing with other cultures. You can find out more information about the process, report, countries available, etc .

When was your new website created?

We have had several large website updates over the years. We suggest using the retrieval date when a date is needed. Our current website was significantly updated in 2023. Use the Wayback machine if you need to see a previous version. 

How often is your website updated?

Our website is updated continuously, the latest update can be considered as the date of retrieval. If you have any comments on the content presented on the website, please reach out to and we will consider your comments.

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